The original form of trade, barter, saw the direct exchange of goods and services for other goods and services. Barter is trading things without the use of money. Later one side of the barter started to involve precious metals, which gained symbolic as well as practical importance. Modern traders generally negotiate through a medium of exchange, such as money. As a result, buying can be separated from selling, or earning. The invention of money (and later credit, paper money and non-physical money) greatly simplified and promoted trade. Trade between two traders is called bilateral trade, while trade between more than two traders is called multilateral trade.
Trade exists due to the specialization and division of labor, in which most people concentrate on a small aspect of production, trading for other products. Trade exists between regions because different regions may have a comparative advantage (perceived or real) in the production of some trade-able commodity, or because different regions' size may encourage mass production. As such, trade at market prices between locations can benefit both locations.
Trade (also known as Chow) is a gay slang term originating from Polari and refers to the (usually) casual partner of a gay man or to the genre of such pairings. Men falling in the category of "trade" are not gay-identified. Historically the motivations may at times include a desire for emotional fulfillment and admiration, but the term often refers to a straight man who partners with a gay man for economic benefit, either through a direct cash payment or through other, more subtle means (gifts, tuition payments, etc.). Trade originally referred to casual sex partners, regardless of sexuality as many gay and bisexual men were closeted, but evolved to imply the gay partner is comparatively wealthy and the partner who is trade is economically deprived. Examples of this include wealthy Englishmen finding partners among deprived Cockneys in 1930s London; traveling men finding partners in places such as Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and Bangkok, Thailand and locals picking up military personnel who are generally seen as being physically appealing and eager for extra income or benefits.
Trade was a highly successful, pioneering and influential gaynightclub started in 1990 by Laurence Malice. Trade was unlike any other club at the time as it opened from 4am until 1pm on Sundays at Turnmills, Clerkenwell Road, London. The club was touted as "the original all night bender". The door policy was firm but fair: "You don't have to be gay or a member to get in, but your attitude and look will count".
Early Years 1990 - 1995
Trade quickly grew in popularity as other clubs at the time such as Heaven, G-A-Y and The Fridge closed at around 02:00-03:00 Sunday mornings, an hour or so before Trade opened at 03.00 Therefore, clubbers were able to go straight on to the club.
At the time many guys went cruising in the parks after leaving other clubs. The name 'Trade' and the opening hours was to encourage guys to go to the club as a safer alternative.
Turnmills was the first club in the UK to be given a 24-hour "Music & Dance" licence. This was gained after Laurence Malice had for a long period of time tried to convince Mr Newman that there was a need for people to be able to party in a safe environment after 3am in the morning.
Due to this licensing advantage, the venue's role was crucial to the success of Trade.
Aircraft camouflage is the use of camouflage, typically in the form of light and color patterns, applied to military aircraft to make them more difficult to see on the ground, in the air, or to make their speed, distance or attitude harder to determine. Military camouflage is highly dependent upon environmental conditions and is primarily effective against human observers, though some electronic visual acquisition systems can also be confused. It does not hinder radar location or heat-seeking electronics although the paints used may contain substances that can.
Camouflage colours and patterns are subject to considerable experimentation and theorizing, and most countries have explicit specifications as to their application that are sufficiently unique to make it possible to determine the intended operator in many cases even when no national insignia is visible. The colours and patterns have changed over time, both as new theories were tried, and as operational requirements changed. During and after World War II, the Yehudi lights project explored counter-illumination camouflage using lamps to increase the brightness of the aircraft to match the background. Recent experiments have looked at the use of light-emitting active camouflage systems which allow the colours and patterns to be changed to match the background.